Mainnet Shapella Announcement
Reposted from https://blog.ethereum.org/2023/03/28/shapella-mainnet-announcement Author: Protocol Support Team of Ethereum Foundation Withdrawals are coming! The Shapella network upgrade will activate on the Ethereum network at epoch 194048, scheduled for 22:27:35 UTC on Apr. 12, 2023 Stakers & node operators should read this post as well as the Withdrawals FAQ From now until April 5th, the Ethereum Bug Bounty rewards have been doubled for Shapella vulnerabilities You can now sign up to receive emails for these upgrade announcements. Scroll to the bottom of the page to do so 📩 After a smooth Goerli transition, client teams have scheduled the Shapella upgrade for mainnet activation. Consensus was quickly reached on an April 12th date during the 157th AllCoreDevs Execution Layer meeting. This upgrade follows The Merge and enables validators to withdraw their stake from the Beacon Chain back to the execution layer. It also introduces new functionality to both the execution and consensus layer, described below. Upgrade Specification The Shapella upgrade combines changes to the execution layer (Shanghai), consensus layer (Capella) and the Engine API. Shanghai Execution layer changes included in Shanghai are available here. For reference, they are: EIP-3651: Warm COINBASE EIP-3855: PUSH0 instruction EIP-3860: Limit and meter initcode EIP-4895: Beacon chain push withdrawals as operations EIP-6049: Deprecate SELFDESTRUCT Note that EIP-6049 is only a deprecation warning. Client teams expect SELFDESTRUCT semantics to change in future network upgrades, but the opcode's behavior remains unchanged in Shanghai. Additionally, the full set of Shanghai changes can now be viewed in the Ethereum Execution Layer Specification (EELS), which is a new Python reference implementation for the execution layer. Capella Changes to the consensus layer for the Capella upgrade are specified in the v1.3.0-rc.5 specifications. The README lists the full set of changes. At a high level, the upgrade introduces: Full and partial withdrawals for validators BLSToExecutionChange messages, which allow validators using a BLS_WITHDRAWAL_PREFIX to update it to an ETH1_ADDRESS_WITHDRAWAL_PREFIX, a prerequisite for withdrawals Independent state and block historical accumulators, replacing the original singular historical roots Stakers are encouraged to read the Withdrawal FAQ for more information on how they should prepare for Capella. Engine API Changes to the Engine API can be found in the shanghai.md file of the execution-apis repository. In short, a WithdrawalV1 structure is introduced and added to relevant structures and methods. Changes to execution layer APIs since The Merge have been bundled in the repository's latest release. Client Releases The following client releases support Shanghai & Capella on the Ethereum mainnet. Previous Shapella releases only supported testnet deployments and are not compatible with the mainnet upgrade. When choosing which client to run, validators should be especially mindful of the risks of running a majority client on both the execution layer (EL) and consensus layer (CL). An explainer of these risks and their consequences can be found here. An estimate of current EL and CL client distribution and guides for switching from one client to another can be found here. Consensus Layer Mainnet Releases Lighthouse v4.0.1 Lodestar v1.7.0 Nimbus v23.3.2 Prysm v4.0.0 Teku v23.3.1 Note: when running a validator, both the Consensus Layer Beacon Node and Validator Client must be updated. Execution Layer Mainnet Releases Besu v23.1.2 Erigon v2.42.0 go-ethereum (geth) v1.11.5 Nethermind v1.17.3 Note: an issue has been found in Erigon v2.41.0. This release will not be suitable for the Shapella upgrade. Erigon users should upgrade to v2.42.0. FAQ 1. As an Ethereum user or Ether holder, is there anything I need to do? In short, no. If you use an exchange, digital wallet or hardware wallet you do not need to do anything unless you are informed to take additional steps by your exchange or wallet provider. If you run your own Ethereum node, see the next question. 2. As a non-staking node operator, what do I need to do? To be compatible with the Mainnet upgrade, update your node to the version of your Ethereum client listed in the table above. 3. As a staker, what do I need to do? To be compatible with the Mainnet upgrade, update your node to the version of your Ethereum client listed in the table above. Make sure both your beacon node and validator client are updated! We also recommend reading the Withdrawal FAQ. 4. What happens if I am a staker or node operator and I do not participate in the upgrade? If you are using an Ethereum client that is not updated to the latest version (listed above), your client will sync to the pre-fork blockchain once the upgrade occurs. You will be stuck on an incompatible chain following the old rules and will be unable to send Ether or operate on the post-Shapella Ethereum network. 5. As an application or tooling developer, what should I do? Shapella does not introduce breaking changes for smart contracts. Application and tooling developers should review the upgrade changes to ensure any fixes are done, or to understand how to use newly introduced functionality. That said, application developers should be aware that as of Shanghai, the SELFDESTRUCT opcode is considered deprecated. While its semantics do not change as part of this network upgrade, they likely will in subsequent ones. See EIP-6049 for more information. 6. Why "Shapella"? Upgrades to the execution layer follow Devcon city names and those to the consensus layer follow star names. "Shapella" is the combination of Shanghai, the location of Devcon 2, and Capella, the brightest star in the northern constellation of Auriga. 7. Where Can I Watch Shapella Go Live? EthStaker & Ethereum Cat Herders are hosting a Shapella viewing party, starting shortly before the upgrade goes live. You can tune in here. Thank you to everyone who contributed to the Shapella upgrade, and to all the stakers - old and new - who helped secure what are still the early days of proof-of-stake Ethereum!2023-03-31
How to claim the $ARB airdrop？
$ARB token is claimable now! Please follow the steps below to claim. Prerequisite: Make sure you have enough ETH in your Arbitrum wallet to pay the gas fees, if not, you can click “Deposit” to bridge ETH from your ETH wallet to Arbitrum wallet (If you have questions about the deposit, please refer to this tutorial). How to claim $ARB 1. Open your Arbitrum wallet, switch to the browser page and click “Arbitrum airdrop”. 2. Click "CONNECT WALLET" - "WalletConnect" - "imToken" and approve the DApp to connect to your wallet. Then click "CHECK ELIGIBILITY" to check the number of your claimable $ARB. Note: If you are not eligible for the airdrop, you will see the prompt "Ah shoot". 3. Scroll down the page and click "START CLAIMING". Then scroll to the bottom of the page and click "CLAIM AND DELEGATE YOUR TOKENS". 4. Select your preferences and click "VIEW DELEGATES"- "SELECT DELEGATE" - "CLAIM AND DELEGATE" - "CLAIM YOUR TOKENS" - "CLAIM & DELEGATE". Then you need to sign two transactions to claim your airdrop: The first one is to sign for voting rights, and the second one is to sign for claiming tokens. Note: Delegate will not affect the ownership of your tokens, the delegated representative just gets the right to vote. 5. Go back to the homepage of your Arbitrum wallet, click "+" to check the received $ARB under "All My Assets", and click "+" to add the token to the homepage of your wallet. You can buy and trade $ARB by using Tokenlon’s Limit Order function, which allows you to execute a trade at a specific price: https://tokenlon.im/limit-order. Finally, if you have questions about claiming the airdrop, please contact Arbitrum Official website: https://arbitrum.io/ Discord: https://discord.com/invite/arbitrum Twitter: https://twitter.com/arbitrum2023-04-01
Wallet security letter #12：Two major questions about the new scam
imToken uncovered various new types of scams last year, including TRX multisig scams and addresses with the same last characters. These scams are not only crafty but also intricate, which makes it challenging for certain users to comprehend and avoid them. To assist users in preventing these scams and answering their common queries, the monthly wallet security report provides relevant prevention recommendations. Q1: Can customer service help me return my assets if the tokens are transferred to the wrong address? Before answering this question, let me ask you this: If you want to transfer to an address that has already been transferred to, do you just copy the address directly from the wallet transaction record and then transfer it? If that’s the case, you should be cautious since scammers utilize this habit to generate fraudulent addresses with the same last characters and send small amounts of funds to users, making their address appear in the users' transaction records. If users don't carefully check the address, they might accidentally transfer their assets to the scammer's wallet, which is known as Addresses with the same last characters scam. Some users mistakenly transfer their assets to scammers and then contact customer service to request a refund. However, once a transfer is successful on the blockchain, it is irreversible. Therefore, it is crucial to verify the address's correctness before transferring funds, and the imToken wallet's address book feature can be used to ensure address accuracy. It records frequently used addresses and allows users to enter them with just one click when transferring funds. Address Book feature Q2: Why can't I transfer my assets even though I have the private key? Owning a private key usually means having control over your wallet and the ability to transfer assets. However, in the event of encountering a TRX multisig scam where a criminal alters your owner permission, you may be unable to transfer your assets. Multi-signature is intended to enhance account security by allowing multiple addresses to jointly manage an account and execute transactions after meeting certain signature thresholds. For instance, a 2/3 multi-signature wallet indicates that three individuals possess signature rights, and at least two signatures are required to access funds in that account. Despite its usefulness, the technology can also be exploited by criminals to perpetrate fraudulent activities, which typically involve a two-step process. The scammers buy advertising space to lure users to download fake apps and steal their private keys. The scammers acquire the user’s private key and then utilize multi-signature technology to configure the user’s account as a 2/2 multi-signature wallet. This implies that when transferring funds, the account requires 2 signatures to execute a transaction: one from the user’s account and the other from the scammer’s account. An account with modified permissions The fraudsters can transfer the user's assets at their discretion since they have obtained the user's private key, while the user is unable to control their money as they don't possess the fraudster's account private key. Even if you find customer service, you cannot modify account permissions in this case. This is because imToken is a non-custodial wallet, which means that users hold their private keys. Only those who have both the scammer’s and the user’s account private keys can modify account permissions and transfer funds. This scam is currently popular and well-concealed. To prevent further users from falling prey to this scam,the imToken team reminds everyone that Please be sure to download imToken from the official channel: imToken's official website: https://token.im/ If you encounter any issues with downloading, please send an email with the subject "Download" to [email protected] to get the latest version of imToken App. Check your TRX wallet account permissions regularly. Click here to get the tutorial. End imToken places a high priority on the safety of its users' assets and, in addition to implementing security measures, flagged 12 risky tokens, 50 risky DApp sites, and 130 risky addresses in February to assist users in identifying risky tokens and avoiding scams. If you suspect that a token or DApp is risky, please inform us promptly at [email protected]2023-03-30
How to check your eligibility for the upcoming Arbitrum airdrop in imToken?
Arbitrum announced that its native token, ARB, will be airdropped on March 23, and the query is now available. Learn more. You can follow the steps below to check your eligibility using imToken Launch imToken and switch to the “Browser” tab Enter “Arbitrum” in the search bar and click “Arbitrum airdrop” Click on "CONNECT WALLET" and select "MetaMask" to connect your wallet Click on "CHECK ELIGIBILITY" to query your eligibility PSA: Arbitrum Airdrop is not yet available to claim. Anyone offering to sell you ARB is a scammer. Stay alert! If you have question about Arbitrum airdrop, contact Arbitrum official at： Website：https://arbitrum.io/ Discord：https://discord.com/invite/arbitrum Twitter：https://twitter.com/arbitrum2023-03-30
imToken Supports WalletConnect v2.0
We are excited to announce that imToken has integrated WalletConnect v2.0, the enhanced version of the communication protocol that connects blockchain wallets to decentralized applications (DApps) via QR code scanning or deep linking. Our mission is to build the most reliable and intuitive digital wallet that gives everyone equal access to the tokenized world, while WalletConnect aims to expand the interoperability of the Web3 space. Our shared goal is to offer greater convenience and flexibility to users as they navigate the Web3 landscape, while also providing top-notch resources for developers. WalletConnect v2.0: What’s New WalletConnect v2.0 serves as a decentralized messaging layer for Web3 and a standard for connecting blockchain wallets to DApps. imToken users can access a diverse range of DApps on their mobile devices without the hassle of installing browser extensions or copying private keys, thanks to WalletConnect. WalletConnect v2.0 is not limited to any particular blockchain and can work with any network of your preference. This allows you to use imToken to access and use decentralized applications on various chains such as Ethereum, Binance Smart Chain, Polygon, and others. The major upgrade in WalletConnect v2.0 also provides improved security and privacy measures through the use of end-to-end encryption and session management, allowing for convenient management of active sessions and the ability to revoke access whenever needed. Wallet + WalletConnect v2.0 With the WalletConnect v2.0 integration, imToken can provide its users with more options and opportunities in interacting with various DApps on different chains. Randy Lien, product manager of imToken said: "WalletConnect is dedicated to making the Web3 ecosystem more accessible and inclusive for all. It opens up endless possibilities for secure and seamless interactions between users and DApps, enabling a truly borderless Web3 experience.” “WalletConnect is driven by the mission to improve Web3 UX,” said Pedro Gomes, CEO of WalletConnect. “We released WalletConnect v2.0 so that our wallet partners can offer their users a faster and more seamless experience. We’re excited to see imToken upgrade to WalletConnect v2.0 and look forward to working together to advance the wallet experience.” Integration of WalletConnect v2.0 into imToken will enable DApp developers to create user-friendly experiences by leveraging the APIs and tools provided by WalletConnect v2.0. Moreover, developers can benefit from the robust security and reliability features of this technology, such as encryption, authentication, session management, and message signing. About imToken imToken is a decentralized digital wallet used to manage and safeguard a wide range of blockchain- and token-based assets, identities and data. Since its founding in 2016, it has helped its users transact and exchange billions of dollars in value across more than 150 countries around the world. imToken allows its users to manage assets on 12 mainstream blockchains, as well as seamlessly connect with DApps via a decentralized application browser.2023-03-13
imToken 2.11.3 now supports WalletConnect 2.0
imToken is dedicated to delivering the most reliable and intuitive wallet experience and digital asset management services to its users. The latest version supports WalletConnect 2.0, which allows users to effortlessly connect to DApps on multiple networks with a single click. Furthermore, imToken has enhanced the token risk control system to provide an additional level of security protection for users' assets. New on the latest version: Support for WalletConnect 2.0, which provides a more seamless DApp connection experience for users Upgrading the risk control system of ETH wallets to block risky tokens and prevent token scams Optimized node delay display and prompt notifications for any node abnormalities Adding network name to the notifications center's transaction notice list WalletConnect 2.0: Connect to multiple networks with one click In imToken 2.5.8, we supported WalletConnect 1.0, enabling users to easily switch between mobile devices and computers to access DApps on Ethereum via QR code scanning. imToken 2.11.3 now supports WalletConnect 2.0, allowing users to connect to EVM-compatible chains such as Polygon, BSC, and Gnosis Chain, as well as Layer 2s such as Optimism, Arbitrum, and Arbitrum Nova, expanding access to DApps on a variety of networks. By scanning the QR code with imToken, users can view the name of the network that the DApp is requesting to connect to, and with a single click on the "Approve" button, they can connect to all supported networks. Note: imToken cannot establish a connection if the requested network includes an unsupported or unrecognized network. Enhanced risk control system By gathering reported fraudulent tokens from users and information provided by third-party security teams, imToken has classified risk tokens on Ethereum into the following categories: Warning: Tokens with potential risk Risk: Tokens with identified risk High Risk: Tokens with extremely high risk When you transfer a token that has been labeled as "Warning", imToken will pop up a security alert. And tokens marked as "Risk" or "High Risk" due to identified or extreme risks will not appear on the wallet page to stop users from falling victim to scam tokens. Furthermore, the latest version of imToken identifies domain tokens as "Spam Token", which contain phishing links in their names. If a token named "Spam Token" is found in your wallet, it indicates it's a fraudulent token. Adding network name to the transaction notice list imToken now displays a network identifier in the transaction notice list, making it easier for users to view the network involved. For instance, if you transfer USDT from a TRX wallet, the notification will show "Tron" in the lower right corner, indicating it was initiated on that network. How to Update? Android users: You can download from the official website https://token.im or at your favorite App store (Google Play). iOS users: You can download from the App Store. If you encounter any problem during the process, you can also send an email with the subject "Download" to [email protected] to get the latest version of imToken App. Always Backup Your Keys Before upgrading, please make sure that all wallet identities have been backed up properly. Please write down the Mnemonic phrase on a physical paper, never store it in the network; Please refrain from sharing your private key, Mnemonic phrase or Keystore to anyone! If you find potential hacking activities in imToken, please report to us via email at [email protected] to prevent more people from being deceived. Please have a look at our Help Center at https://support.token.im/hc/en-us for more detailed information about imToken. Download imToken: Google Play | Apple App Store And follow us: Twitter | Support | token.im2023-03-16
Wallet security letter #11: Never Click on Fake Advertising Windows!
On 15 January 2023, a KOL in the blockchain industry posted a tweet claiming that hackers invaded his computer, resulting in the loss of all digital assets in his cold wallet. The concept of a cold wallet may be unfamiliar to those who have not come across it before. A cold wallet is a type of wallet that is not connected to the internet, minimizing the risk of hacking and network threats. It is ideal for storing large amounts of digital currency or for long-term storage. Professional cold wallet devices such as imKey and Ledger are currently in widespread use. Despite the aforementioned benefits of cold wallets being more secure, this KOL's assets were still stolen. According to the KOL, the incident occurred when he accidentally clicked on an advertising link while downloading some software from Google, which resulted in the installation of malware and allowed the hackers to infiltrate his computer. Usually, when you download and open such malicious software, they will scan your computer, look for sensitive information such as mnemonic phrases, and then transmit it to hackers. Before the hacker attack, this KOL had made an error by transferring the mnemonic phrases of the cold wallet onto a computer that was connected to the internet. When mnemonic phrases are connected to the internet, a cold wallet loses its safety and security features, thus becoming a hot wallet. Subsequently, the hacker obtained the KOL's wallet mnemonic phrase by means of the internet and malicious software, ultimately stealing the KOL's assets. While utilizing a cold wallet to store assets is widely acknowledged as being one of the most secure storage methods in the industry, having poor security awareness and habits can leave even the most secure tools vulnerable to hacker attacks. As such, what steps can be taken to prevent such incidents? It is advised against clicking on search engine ads or links to unfamiliar websites and instead recommended to bookmark frequently used websites to avoid falling prey to phishing scams. It is essential not to import the mnemonic phrase or private key of a cold wallet into a networked environment. One of the main advantages of a cold wallet is the offline generation and storage of the private key. Once the private key is imported into a networked environment, the cold wallet becomes a hot wallet, losing the protection of the cold wallet's security measures. Asset guard Scam Alert | SMS scams Fraudsters have recently been impersonating imToken official staff and contacting users through text messages, claiming that "imToken will suspend the withdrawal function" or "the old version will be shut down soon," and then luring users to visit fake websites and enter their mnemonic phrases, resulting in asset loss for the users. Scam Alert： All individuals who contact you through phone or text messages claiming to be from imToken are scammers. imToken is a wallet that operates in a decentralized manner, with all user assets being recorded on the blockchain. The concept of "asset freezing" does not apply to imToken. Properly safeguard your mnemonic phrase or private key and do not disclose it to anyone. Please bookmark imToken website: https://token.im Risk Control In January, imToken marked 478 tokens and 54 addresses as risky and banned 1480 DApp websites. If you come across any risky tokens or DApps, please report them to us at [email protected] to help more users avoid asset loss. End In addition to choosing the right tool, you need to have some security knowledge to ensure the security of your digital assets. We recommend that you visit the imToken website https://token.im/ to learn more about security.2023-03-12
imToken 2023 Crypto Wallet Report
Smarter wallets: What to watch out for in 2023 The past year has been quite a ride for crypto. With the new year ahead, we would like to show how the wallet space is developing. We first asked crypto users how they feel about wallets, and then interviewed expert teams - for a look into the future. For a detailed report on our findings please find the detailed report here. Or read our summary of some of the key findings below. 2022 saw user pains persist “Not your keys, not your crypto”. This sentence probably popped up on your timeline after any of the recent exchange disasters. And in its essence the sentence is correct: you do need a wallet if you want to take full control, which really is crypto’s big promise. Holding crypto on a custodial solution means giving up on the feature of self-control. Holding crypto on a wallet, however, is not without risk. Some people get their Ape stolen, others simply lose their seed phrase. This made us wonder how people think about crypto wallets today. Here is some of what we found. In our survey we learned that nearly two thirds (63%) of users find trading on exchanges to be more convenient or cheaper than trading on wallets. An unexpected number. At the same time we can see solutions emerge. Reddit, for example, added a wallet functionality to their app. The 6th most popular website of the world calls their wallet feature “vault”, somewhat hiding the complexity that users of the traditional crypto wallets so much dislike. In fact, most of their users might not even know the blockchain that guarantees integrity of their “Reddit Collectible Avatars”, Polygon. More shocking though, 38% of users found wallets less secure than exchanges. Security being one of the key differentiators in the favor of wallets does not seem to convince end users. They fear being hacked (29%) or lose crypto by their own mistake (18%). Millions of people started using crypto wallets, thanks to Reddit. https://dune.com/polygon_analytics/reddit-collectible-avatars Smarter wallets are on the way Smart wallets promise a solution to exactly these user pains. The new tools are niche, but increasing their user base. In its entire history, 2022 was the industry’s year with the most smart contract wallets created. For example, 2022 saw 65% of all Safe (former: Gnosis Safe) wallets created. More than double the previous year. While growing in user numbers, smart wallets appeal only to a limited user base. Our research found that smart wallets make for only 0.1% of the wallet market. The main reason might be that deploying a smart contract wallet can cost $100 just in upfront costs. 2023 building the future of wallets This is where our report gets more technical. If you like to learn more on the technical details below do read the detailed report here. Below we continue with our summary. We found roughly two areas of improvements in wallets: Security and convenience. In terms of security, over half of our survey participants (51%) told us they would take improved security in the form of multi-factor authentication as a reason to choose a new wallet. That is a big number if you are a wallet company and thinking about future plans. Now what are wallets building? Security improvements fall into three areas: Controlling risks, stopping unwanted access, and regaining access after an incident. Transaction conditions help with risk control: A transaction amount limit, for example, can be set to help reduce the chance of an expensive user error and to help prevent an attacker from emptying a wallet in one transaction. Emergency account freezing, whitelisting and multi-factor authentication can help you to stop access: In the event of a lost or stolen device, an account can be locked, or access to the account from the compromised device can be deactivated. Multi-signature, social recovery and key rotation can help you regain access to your account: Smart wallets can have multiple owners which allows you to get rid of one, or add new ones. If your friends are co-owners you can ask those to recover your own access. In terms of convenience, we do see a couple of interesting approaches being developed already. Combining some of them results in experiences similar to that of custodial solutions. A whooping 76% of interviewed users found custodial solutions more convenient than wallets. One new concept is the “Invisible Wallet”. This wallet combines an email login, session keys, batched transactions and paid gas fee. The result is a Web2-like experience where you can play games on Ethereum without having to sign a transaction every time you take an action on-chain. Most of these amazing new features can be found in MPC and smart contract wallets. Coinbase, Safe and Argent are prominent examples. Not all that glitters is gold, though. There are trade-offs that wallets have to take. imToken Head of Research, Chang-Wu Chen, notes that “a multi-party computation (MPC) wallet (like the Coinbase app or Zengo) looks like an EOA with an invisible private key. So it can natively support multichain, like BTC, or whatever public blockchain, only if their signature scheme is MPC-friendly. Sounds perfect, right? But for the MPC solution, it requires having an online computing unit to co-work with.” Some blockchains already offer solutions that offer benefits similar to the ones from MPC and AA wallet solutions. We interviewed three blockchain projects in that area: The Layer 2 projects Matter Labs (zkSync) and Starkware (StarkNet) as well as the blockchain project NEAR. On the NEAR blockchain, for example, allaccounts are contracts, all of which can be controlled by multiple key pairs. This brings a couple of smart features to NEAR users by default. They can set different permissions per key, add and remove devices, create social recovery and more - all features that the Ethereum community is working to add on top of its base layer blockchain. NEAR’s co-founder, Illia Polosukhin, told us that “security is indeed a big part” of the benefit of the account model, with an estimated “500k-1m accounts” having used multiple keys per account so far. Tom Brand, Product Lead at StarkWare, likened the result to “a Web2 user experience”, and mentioned how Visa (the financial services company) recently built on StarkWare’s network. The payment prototype shows that Account Abstraction allows users to have the same user experience for recurring payments in between existing Visa users and StarkNet self-custodial users as with traditional payments. Omar Azhar, Head of Enterprise Business Development at Matter Labs, agreed that “many companies are interested in seeing how they can enable a seamless Web2 experience for self-custody wallets within their applications”. Azhar added that another benefit was "’custom business’ logic being built directly into smart wallets thanks to Account Abstraction”, like embedded identity and KYC. For a detailed report on our findings please find the detailed report here. Or read our summary of some of the key findings below. About imToken imToken is a decentralized digital wallet used to manage and safeguard a wide range of blockchain- and token-based assets, identities and data. Since its founding in 2016, it has helped its users transact and exchange billions of dollars in value across more than 150 countries around the world. As part of imToken Lab, we research innovations such as MPC and AA and will have major progress to look forward to in the new year. Thanks to our collaborators! We want to thank for their contribution: Omar Azhar, Head of Enterprise Business Development at Matter Labs, Tom Brand, Product Lead at StarkWare, Illia Polosukhin, Co-Founder of NEAR, Denys Kovalenko at NEARWEEK, and Chang-Wu Chen, Head of Research at imToken. Download imToken: Google Play | Apple App Store Follow us: Twitter | Support | token.im Click the link below 👇 to download the crypto wallet report in PDF format2023-03-23
Ethereum Shanghai Upgrade. What’s New?
Reposted from：https://medium.com/@observer1/ethereum-shanghai-upgrade-whats-new-c8d0bca68ddd Author：Observers.com A major update of the Ethereum network will take place in the near future. The developers said that they plan to carry out the Shanghai Network Upgrade in March 2023. We have already written about the upcoming major update of the Ethereum network — Shanghai Upgrade.This is the first major network update after the recentThe Merge— the complete transition of the Ethereum network to the Proof-of-Stake consensus mechanism.The Merge has increased the centralization of Ethereum, and the Shanghai Upgrade should fix it. Ethereum Shanghai Network Update includes several Ethereum improvement proposals (EIP). In a previous article about this major update, we described the EIPs that will be included in the Shanghai Upgrade. Then it was planned to hold 6 EIPs: EIP-3540, EIP-3651, EIP-3670, EIP-3855, EIP-3860 and EIP-4895. These EIPs are described in detail in our previous article. On the eighth of December, Ethereum Core Devs Meeting 151 was held, where the upcoming Shanghai Upgrade was discussed. The summary of this meeting was published by Ethereum developer Tim Beiko. Three new EIPs have been added to the EIPs list: EIP-4200, EIP-4750 and EIP-5450. Let’s discuss them in more detail. EIP-4200: EOF — Static relative jumps This EIP adds three new EVM jump instructions: RJUMP, RJUMPI and RJUMPV. They are needed in order to optimize the network and reduce costs. A recurring discussion topic is that EVM only has a mechanism for dynamic jumps. They provide a very flexible architecture with only 2 (!) instructions. This flexibility comes at a cost however: it makes analysis of code more complicated and it also (partially) resulted in the need to have the JUMPDEST marker. <…> The main benefit of these instruction is reduced gas cost (both at deploy and execution time) and better analysis properties. EIP-4750: EOF — Functions This EIP, like the EIP-4200, is aimed at optimizing the code. Optimization is carried out by dividing the code into sections. Introduce the ability to have several code sections in EOF-formatted (EIP-3540) bytecode, each one representing a separate subroutine/function. Two new opcodes, CALLF and RETF, are introduced to call and return from such a function. Additionally JUMPF instruction is introduced to perform a jump to a function. Dynamic jump instructions are disallowed. EIP-5450: EOF — Stack Validation This EIP introduces extended code validation. And, like the previous ones, optimizes the network. Currently existing EVM implementations perform a number of validity checks for each executed instruction, such as check for stack overflow/underflow, sufficient gas, etc. This change aims to minimize the number of such checks required at run-time, by verifying at deploy-time that no exceptional conditions can happen, and preventing to deploy the code where it could happen. At Ethereum Core Devs Meeting 151, the addition of two more EIPs was also discussed: EIP-663 and EIP-6064. EIP-663 Unlimited SWAP and DUP instructions introduce two new instructions: SWAPN and DUPN their difference from SWAP and DUP in increased stack depth from 16 to 256 elements. EIP-6046: Replace SELFDESTRUCT with DEACTIVATE introduces a change to SELFDESTRUCT instruction「to not delete all storage keys, and to use a special value in the account nonce to signal deactivated accounts.」Instruction SELFDESTRUCT is also renamed to DEACTIVATE. The most interesting information voiced during the Ethereum Core Devs Meeting 151 is the deadline for Shanghai Upgrade. The developers called March 2023 the deadline for Shanghai hard fork. We hope that the developers will be able to carry out the next major network update without delays, and we continue to observe.2023-03-30